Research by: Commandant Larry Scallan
Compiled by: Gerry Cody
MORE OFFENSIVE ACTION FOLLOWS ARREST OF LEADING IRA MEMBERS
The story of the Friary Street ambush starts in Delaney’s tailoring shop, in the Watergate area of Kilkenny, towards the end of 1920. A much depleted Brigade HQ staff meeting was taking place. The recent arrest of Ernie O’Malley at James Hanrahan’s farm close to Inistioge and the capture of his classified notebook, filled with critical information, had led to widespread arrests of prominent IRA commanders.
Peter Deloughry the Brigade Commander, James Roughan, Officer Commanding the very active 7th battalion, and many other active volunteers were arrested and imprisoned.
George O’Dwyer, the newly appointed Brigade Commander, had recently received a dispatch from Army Headquarters requiring more action to be taken in his area of operations. A number of options were discussed at the meeting, but no final decision was made regarding what the target would be or how soon it would happen.
In early January, O’Dwyer, along with Patrick Bryan of St Kieran street, the Brigade Quartermaster, had a meeting with Timothy Hennessy in Bryan’s home. O’Dwyer was annoyed about the tactical situation and he wanted more offensive action and soon.
O’Dwyer came to realise that the situation in Kilkenny had become very complex with fragmented leadership issues. He then developed a mission command style of military leadership, which was derived from the Prussian-pioneered mission-type tactics doctrine, promoting relatively decentralised command, freedom and speed of action, and initiative, within certain constraints.
Tim Hennessy knew he was required to activate the members of his 1st Battalion, select a suitable target and implement a plan to attack some part of the Crown Forces in Kilkenny City. He was informed that a ration party of the Devonshire Regiment brought fresh rations to the military guard at Kilkenny Jail every day. He decided that this would be a good target for a planned future operation. Tommy Nolan (Outrath) was selected to assist him with all the planning and, like Hennessy, Nolan was a veteran of the Hugginstown attack.
As the plan was being developed, Martin Mulhall Danville was tasked with reconnoitring the patrol route and observing the deportment and drills used by the soldiers when they were carrying out this routine daily patrol. Mulhall reported the following: the patrol consisted of seven soldiers deployed in three groups; the advance guard was made up of two private soldiers; The main guard was made up of three soldiers two privates – one being the driver and one an NCO.
The patrol route never changed. The patrol left the barracks at the Ballybought Street gate, moved down onto John’s Street, over John’s Bridge, up Rose Inn Street, onto the Parade, turning up High Street and then turning left onto Friary Street, veering right at the top of Friary Street, up the Jail Road, arriving at the Jail entrance. He also reported that when the advance guard was in line with Hackett’s pub at the top of Friary Street, the main group were in line with Garagan’s stone cutting yard and the rear party were in line with the Friary Church. These positions were selected to be the locations of the attacking Volunteers when the final plans were made for the attack at Battalion Headquarters. Three rural companies were selected for the attack. Tim Hennessy appointed Martin O’Brien from Kells as the operations commander.
Volunteers from Kells, Threecastles and Bennetsbridge were chosen for the attack.
RULES OF ENGAGEMENT ENFORCED ON THE DAY PREVENTED ATTACKERS USING LETHALFORCE
It was decided that the objective of the mission would be to apprehend the troops, gain possession of their arms, ammunition and documents, disable the soldiers and withdraw to a safe area where they would disperse into the local population (like fish swimming in the sea of the population). At the same time, the rules of engagement enforced on the day prevented the attackers from using lethal force, except for self-protection.
It is important here to discuss the implication of this most important mission. It is a tactical imperative that attackers triggering an ambush use the element of surprise to neutralise the enemy with lethal force.
The limiting of the ambush party to use of force for self-protection only was to have very damaging effects, as will be seen.
Members of the ambush party met a few days before the attack where elements of the action were rehearsed at Shines Hill on the Callan road.
Tim Hennessy was happy about the chances of success after the rehearsals.
The final Order of Battle was as follows
James O Brien Commander
In all, eighteen volunteers were on active service on the morning of the 21st February, ‘21. However, only fourteen were on Friary Street, which gave the attackers a 2:1 numerical advantage over the Devonshire patrol. This might sound like a good advantage, but a good ‘rule of thumb’ is that attackers should plan to have at least a 3:1 advantage and it is very preferable to have an even higher advantage when planning an urban operation in a built up area. In fact, when Thomas Treacy attacked the Hugginstown RIC barracks he had a tactical advantage of 10:1.
AMBUSH PARTIES TAKE UP POSITIONS
All of the ambushing party arrived in the city by bicycle that morning. The Threecastles men parked their bikes at St Mary’s Cathedral. The Bennetsbridge and Kells groups parked their bikes at the bottling store (now Brennan’s Public house, Walkin Street).
The Threecastles men deployed at the Friary. Thomas Hennessy and Michael Dermody took up position in Garden Row laneway, while McEvoy and Dunne took up position in the Friary porch.
The five Bennetsbridge men positioned themselves at Hackett’s pub. Ned Gooley and Danny Murphy were lying in the doorway of the pub with Dick Fitzgerald standing behind them. Tommy Murphy and Johnny Greene were on the street, one reading a paper and the other pretending to be fixing his bicycle.
UNFORTUNATE TIMING OF CIVILIAN INTERVENTION TURNS THE TABLE ON THE LOCAL BRIGADE
The Kells group were in position in Garagan’s stone cutting yard. Jim O Brien checked and confirmed that all of the groups were in position. The ambush would be activated from his whistle blast which he would give when the main party were in line with his position.
Martin Mulhall was already performing his task, reconnoitring the location of the Devonshire patrol. That morning he cycled through the patrol, confirming that they were deployed correctly.
He then doubled back and noticed that the patrol looked relaxed and were just a little behind time.
He cycled up Friary street where he noticed two things: A lady was leaving a house directly across from Garagans , and a man was leaving the Friary church heading past the soldiers.
The advance guard and the main party passed the Friary. Dunne and McEvoy were tense and ready for the signal to launch the attack.
ATTACK FROM THE REAR
Suddenly they noticed Hennessy and Dermody moving from their position into the street. They moved and met in the centre of the street. Hennessy then made a snap decision to send Dunne and McEvoy back to the porch of the Friary, while he and Dermody would move to disarm the rear guard who looked relaxed and were chatting to each other.
They walked passed the soldiers, then turned and attacked them from the rear.
There was still no whistle blast as the main party were not yet in line with Garagan’s yard. Jim O’Brien didn’t know what was going on down the street as he was concealed from view of the ration party.
The lady on the street screamed “Soldiers, you are being attacked!”.
FOUR SHOTS FIRED
Immediately, the two soldiers from the main party turned around and took cover. They took aim and fired at least four shots in quick succession.
Dermody and Hennessy who were struggling to disarm the rear guard fell to the ground wounded. The remainder of the attacking force became aware for the first time that the attack had gone wrong. The Bennetsbridge group then fired a number of shots at the cart which had bolted up the street. One of the mules dropped somewhere in line with the Fair Green.
CONFUSION AS ATTACKERS ESCAPE
The attackers managed to escape into the country side during the confusion that followed.
On Friary Street, Tom Hennessey lay dead and Michael Dermody was badly wounded, but a further thirty yards down the street lay a Mister Thomas Dullard, a corporation worker and farther of four who just happened to be in the wrong place in the wrong time. He would die of his wounds.
The fact that the Threecastles men attacked the Devonshire rear guard with no numerical advantage meant that the struggle was always going to be protracted and the early warning given by the lady on the street compounded the situation. Well trained soldiers engaging targets from less than twenty five yards with modern rifles meant that there was no doubt about the outcome of the action.
CORRECT DECISION TAKEN
Jim O’Brien made the hard but right decision not to sound the whistle blast and activate an already compromised action. The early triggering of the rear group meant that all of the Devonshire soldiers were on high alert and it would have been tactically unsound to attempt an attack when all of the advantages now lay with the soldiers. The engaging of the ration cart by the Bennetsbridge men allowed the attackers to escape during the confusion.
The dead and wounded were all searched and pistols were found in both Hennessy’s and Dermody’s pockets. Both were loaded. Father Patrick from the Friary anointed all of the men as they lay on the street. Doctor John Mitchell came out of the dispensary and administered first aid to the wounded men before they were removed to Kilkenny military hospital. Thomas Dullard would die shortly afterwards and Michael Dermody would die of his wounds in military custody on 4th March, ‘21.
BURIED AT TULLA
Tom Hennessey was buried in Tulla Church and adjoining cemetery. His brother Tim, the overall commander of the operation, was arrested at the funeral and a British officer removed the Tricolour from Tom Hennessey’s coffin as it was carried from the church. Michael Dermody would be interred along with Hennessy less than two weeks later.
While it is easy to pass judgement on the actions of volunteer soldiers fighting for the noble cause of Irish freedom, the bravery involved in accosting well trained, professional soldiers, armed with modern firearms, cannot be overestimated. Thomas Hennessy and Michael Dermody are rightly remembered with a plaque in Friary Street.
There were many follow up operations carried out by the Crown forces over the following days. All sections of the RIC were involved as well as soldiers from the Barracks.
Jim O’Brien was not found to be responsible for the failure of the operation and, as already recounted, it was a combination of many things which accounted for the outcome. There was an IRA inquiry which found no fault in the commander. He followed the plan and was never in a position to launch the attack.
COUNCIL WORKER DULLARD WAS AN INNOCENT VICTIM
A few words now about Thomas Dullard. His wife was called Mrs Bridget Dullard they had four children aged fifteen, five, two and six months. He was a corporation supervisor at the sandpits on Wolfe Tone Street.
He had returned home for breakfast after an early start and was seen by Dick McEvoy leaving the church just before the action started.
FURTHER ASSAULTS FOLLOWED
The armed struggle would continue in Kilkenny. Around three weeks later, there was an attempt to assassinate County Inspector F. Whyte just off Friary Street, close to the Tholsel. Actions in Uskerty, Garryricken, Sinnott’s Cross and Coolbawn would exemplify the planning and offensive spirit at Brigade level and the quality of leadership at Battalion and Company level as well as the determination of all members of the Kilkenny Brigade IRA.
HENNESSY TO THE FORE
Tom Hennessy planned the operation having been at the receiving end of a number of severe beatings from the Auxiliary division Royal Irish Constabulary. Major Bruce, who was known as a loose cannon, appointed as a platoon commander in A Company Auxiliary Division, had threatened to shoot him during one search of the premises he managed in Ennisnag. He probably imposed the rules of engagement on the operation because he had very real concerns about what would happen to the city should any of the crown forces have died on Friary Street.
100 YEARS LATER
One hundred years to the day, The First Battalion of the Kilkenny Brigade re-enactment group, laid wreaths to remember all three who died at ‘The Friary Street Ambush’
Having first called to St Patrick’s graveyard, where they laid a wreath on the grave of Thomas Dullard, The small group then travelled to Friary street, where those who lost their lives were remembered. Fr Dan Carroll said a prayer at the site, and following a few words from Commandant Larry Scallan, a minutes silence was held.
John Joe Cullen acted as M.C
Covid rules were adhered to at both ceremonies.